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Book Value

When calculating book value, businesses offset the asset's depreciation against the cost of carrying the asset on their balance sheets. Therefore, book value can also be viewed as a company's net asset value (NAV), which is determined by subtracting liabilities and intangible assets (such as goodwill and patents) from its total assets. For an initial investment, book value may be gross or net of costs like trading fees, sales taxes, service fees, and so forth. The total common shareholders' equity less the preferred stock is divided by the total number of the company's common shares to arrive at book value per share.

Book Valuation
Book value is the accounting worth of a company's assets less its liabilities. Book value is the asset's original historical cost recorded in the books.
Accounting measurements may keep an asset's book value the same over time, while asset utilization might increase a company's book value. Comparing a company's book value to the market value of its shares might help determine whether shares are appropriately priced.
Book value is a company's accounting value.  It represents the overall value of a company's assets if it were liquidated. And might be used to  indicate if a stock is undervalued or overvalued.


Book Value per Share
Book value per share (BVPS) calculates a company's per-share book value based on common shareholders' equity. The book value per common share reflects the amount left for common shareholders after all assets are liquidated and debts are paid. BVPS is higher than market value per share if a company's stock is undervalued.
Book value is the price paid for a securities or debt investment. The capital gain or loss from an investment is the selling price less the book value.

Mark-to-Market
There are limits to how precisely book value can be a substitute for shares' market value when mark-to-market valuation is not applied to assets whose market values may rise or fall.
A company's real estate may grow value, while its antiquated machinery may lose value due to technological advances. Book value at historical cost distorts an item or company's true value given its fair market price.

Price-to-Book Ratio
Price-to-book (P/B) ratio is beneficial for comparing similar companies within the same industry when they employ a uniform accounting technique for asset assessment. The ratio may not be valid when comparing companies from different sectors and industries, as some record assets at historical costs and others mark to market.
High P/B ratios aren't always premium valuations, and low P/B ratios aren't always discount valuations.

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